Viktor Korchnoi dies at 85

by Frederic Friedel
6/6/2016 – He was one of the truly great chess players, a legend. He played in three matches that produced the World Champion, but in each case lost to Anatoly Karpov. It made him the strongest player never to have won the title. In 1976 he defected from the Soviet Union and took up residence in Switzerland, where he continued to be active into his eighties in spite of a stroke. Now he has gone and leaves a grieving chess community.

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Viktor Korchnoi – 23 March 1931 - 6 June 2016

By Frederic Friedel

Viktor Korchnoi was a professional chess player, one of the strongest grandmasters in the world, twice World Championship challenger, the strongest player never to have won the title. He was also, in recent years, the oldest active grandmaster on the tournament circuit.

Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi was born on 23 March 1931 in Leningrad, Soviet Union, to a Jewish father and a Catholic mother. He learned to play chess from his father at the age of five. He graduated from Leningrad State University with a major in history.

In 1974 Korchnoi lost the Candidates final to Karpov, who became the Challenger and was declared world champion when Bobby Fischer refused to defend his title in 1975. After that Korchnoi won two consecutive Candidates cycles to qualify for World Championship matches against Karpov, in 1978 and 1981. He lost both. In total Viktor Korchnoi playing in ten Candidate tournaments (1962, 1968, 1971, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1988 and 1991). He was also a four-time champion of the Soviet Union. In September 2006, he won the World Senior Chess Championship.

In 1974 it became clear that a campaign was under way in the USSR to promote Karpov over Korchnoi. The central authorities prevented him from playing international tournaments, or even in Estonia, which was part of the Soviet Union. He was Korchnoi was allowed to play in the tough 1976 IBM Amsterdam 16-player round robin, probably in order to prove that he was not so strong, and that Karpov was a worthy World Champion. Korchnoi was the joint winner of the tournament along with Tony Miles, both scoring 9.5/15 points.

At the end of the tournament, Korchnoi famously asked Miles to spell "political asylum" for him. He became the first strong Soviet grandmaster to defect from the Soviet Union. He had to leave his wife and son behind. He resided in the Netherlands for some time, moved to West Germany and then eventually settled in Switzerland by in 1978. He continued to play chess, and in 2009 became the oldest player ever to win a national championship, when he won the Swiss championship at age 78.

In 2012 he suffered a stroke and the general opinion was that he would never play competitive chess again. Still he continued to give simultaneous exhibitions and in 2015, bound to a wheelchair, he played a match against German GM Wolfgang Uhlmann. He attended the 2016 Zurich Chess Challenge earlier this year, but was not able to play anything himself.

On a personal note

I got to know Viktor Lvovich shortly after his defection, when he visited Hamburg. We got on well, shared a slightly deviant sense of humour, with myself enjoying his sometimes caustic and rude remarks. He always spoke to me in German, even if I started the conversation in English.

Viktor Korchnoi and Petra at the ChessBase Christmas dinner in Hamburg

At some stage I got to know his wife Petra, who quickly became one of my best friends in the chess world. I have always sought and enjoying her company, joking and flirting. I know her harrowing life story, how her life was interrupted by captivity and a decade-long incarceration in a Soviet concentration camp in the Arctic Circle immediately after the war. Hers is a life story that must be told – and will be sometime in the future.

When I met Viktor and Petra in Zurich in February this year, he was frailer than I had ever seen him before. When he saw me he simply smiled and shrugged his shoulders: "What you gonna do?" was the meaning of that shrug. Petra, who is a couple of years older, was also uncharacteristically shaky, and I found myself helping her to her armchair or through doors. When I commented on Victor's feebleness she said to me: "I only hope he dies before me, Frederic." "Why?" I protested. "Because I do not know who could care for him if I am gone."

Some memories

There will me many stories following this somewhat rushed eulogy. Our editors are already working on them. I myself could go on all night, but will restrict myself to pointing our readers to a few of the great number of article we have published on this great man over the years.

Viktor Korchnoi's 80th Birthday Celebration

2011, Viktor Korchnoi turned 80. There was a week of celebrations, held mainly in Zurich, which is not far from where Viktor Lvovich and his wife Petra live. The celebrations were kicked things off with a clock simul by Korchnoi, and then a gala dinner in his honour. Guests included Mark Taimanov and Garry Kasparov.

Above you see the man for whose 80th birthday all this had been organised, already hard at work himself. Viktor Korchnoi was playing a clock handicap simultaneous exhibition against ten talented youngsters from the Swiss Youth team. Absolutely amazing.

Incidentally, I came down to the Festival Hall, where the simul was under way, with a message from another guest: if the eighty-year-old simultaneous master was overcome with fatigue he could enlist the assistance of an unrated player who was willing to jump in for him, for a move or two. However, Viktor refused: he would do the job by himself. But thank you very kindly for the offer, Garry Kimovich.

Viktor and Garry – for decades they have shared a very affectionate relationship

And here are some picture of two great chess legends: below we see Viktor in animated conversation with 85-year-old Mark Taimanov, who had come to Zurich for the celebrations.

Viktor Korchnoi: My Life for Chess

In 2005, at the age of 73, Viktor visited us in Hamburg to record two fascinating DVDs on a life devoted to chess – a career that spanned more than five decades and six generations of opponents.

At the time, when we decided to make the DVDs, I was a bit nervous. Even in normal conversation Viktor Lvovich was always very intense. No small talk, any question or remark could elicit a profound, witty, or caustic response. And since this was all done in a foreign language, and since he was never willing to compromise his high standard of erudition, the conversation was sometimes ponderous. You had to wait for many seconds while he thought, he would pause mid-sentence and search for a word. He would even go back and correct a previous sentence when a better expression has occurred to him.

Viktor Korchnoi in Studio ChessBase in Hamburg

How would this play out in a video recording, where the speaker is expected to be fluid and eloquent? It was with some trepidation that I took a seat behind the camera in our recording session in the Hamburg “Studio ChessBase” (where Garry Kasparov and others have made a series of wonderful training CDs). Viktor had spent half an hour receiving technical instructions, we had given him IM Oliver Reeh, just out of the picture, to help with the computer operation when he needed it, and he had briefly flipped through his new autobiography “Mein Leben für das Schach” (My Life for Chess, Olms Verlag, 2004). Light, camera, and action!

It was unlike anything I had expected. Viktor Lvovich was completely at ease, spoke powerfully, interspacing profundity with humorous moments, objective chess analysis with scintillating historical narrative. The pauses were there, the struggle for the mot juste. But he used it to dramatic effect. You could feel the intensity, the uncompromising need to say exactly what he was thinking. Let me give you a couple of impressions, literal transcriptions, which of course fail to convey the verbal and facial eloquence, the sly grins and wide-eyed stares. But it will give you a rough idea.

1967. In that year the Soviet state celebrated fifty years of, more or less, its existence. It was the fifty year’s anniversary of the so-called October Socialist Revolution. In order to commemorate this day they organised two big international tournaments – one in Moscow, one in Leningrad. Well, there were even rumours that Bobby Fischer was ready, was eager to take part in one of these tournaments, without any extra fee. Just to play. There were rumours. But the Soviet authorities thought it over and decided not to allow him to come to the Soviet Union. “What the hell would happen if an American citizen would win the tournament commemorated to the fiftieth anniversary of the Soviet state?” No, sorry, so the tournaments were played, the stronger one, in Moscow, was won by Leonid Stein, and the weaker one in Leningrad was won by me, in a fight with Grandmaster Kholmov, who was second. So I won several interesting games, and I am going to show you one of them.

[Korchnoi starts to replay his white game against Mijo Udovcic, which begins 1.d4 e6 2.e4]

Well, some time ago the then world champion Mikhail Botvinnik said that a young player had to arrange his opening repertoire in a way that he would never have to play against himself. What does it mean? It means that if I play the Grunfeld with black against d4 and the French Defence against e4, I should not play against the French myself. Somehow I had to avoid openings which I play myself. But I got tired of playing closed openings and decided to take the challenge. The guy wanted to play the French against me, I take it! But if possible I would avoid the most modern lines.

His Life for Chess on DVD – Viktor Korchnoi narrates and annotates games

Another example? Before one session, I found Viktor Lvovich struggling to find a player called Lowenfish in the Mega Database. After some moments we discovered he was spelled Levenfish. Viktor expertly created a “players dossier”, and I asked him whether he would be showing us a game against Levenfish. “No,” he said, “I just need his exact date of birth.” Mysterious. After this we recorded session number 16, which starts with the following introduction:

I have played chess for more than fifty years. Some of my first opponents were born in the 19th century. For instance in 1953 I played against Grandmaster Levenfish, who was born in 1889 [aha!]. He won one of the games and was very proud. He wrote: “Such a great tactician as Korchnoi overlooked my very nice combination.” Yes, it was a nice game. Well, okay, I played against Levenfish. Now in about one week I am going to Oslo where I will face Magnus Carlsen, who was born one hundred and one years after Levenfish, in the year 1990. Such a range – I believe I have played against people of six generations!

In the year 1976, after the tournament in Hastings, I gave a simultaneous display in London where I played against a selected team of juniors. Thirty boards. It was not easy. I played for seven hours and fifteen minutes. I won seventeen games, I drew twelve, and I lost only one, to a small boy, whose name was Nigel Short. That was 1976. And now I am going to show you a game from 1990, where I play against a future challenger for the world championship, a future contender in the match against Garry Kasparov. This is the game. [Shows us the game Korschnoi vs Short, Rotterdam 1990, 1-0 in 40 moves].

Petra, we are deeply saddened and our thoughts are with you


Read the above obituary in The Telegraph

More obituraries

Editor-in-Chief emeritus of the ChessBase News page. Studied Philosophy and Linguistics at the University of Hamburg and Oxford, graduating with a thesis on speech act theory and moral language. He started a university career but switched to science journalism, producing documentaries for German TV. In 1986 he co-founded ChessBase.


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JWild JWild 9/5/2016 03:46
Victor Korchnoi (1931-2016): The strongest chess player to have never become world champion.
A dubious honor indeed. After hearing of his recent death this past June, and knowing of his long career distinguished by strong play even in his later years (a rarity in the chess world), it occurred to me that he may have beaten many world champions in his career. I finally did some research today. Korchnoi has beaten or drawn EVERY world chess champion, be they undisputed OR disputed, at some point, (i.e. not necessarily when they were champion) since the interregnum of WWII.
Victor Korchnoi has beaten:
Undisputed World Chess Champions:
FIDE World Chess Champions:
Korchnoi has drawn:
Undisputed World Chess Champions:
FIDE World Chess Champions:
MJFitch MJFitch 6/8/2016 06:51
R.I.P. Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi
Dolmol Dolmol 6/8/2016 06:46
One of my favorite Fischer games was vs Victor. Always had great respect for GM Korchnoi, he will be missed.
geraldsky geraldsky 6/8/2016 04:57
A very strong grandmaster who never become a world champion, because he always faced with Karpov.
vincero vincero 6/8/2016 03:53
AS WE GROW and learn through life....we understand that the death of people we know.......or are just aware of and respect....take with their death a tiny part of the living.
fightingchess fightingchess 6/8/2016 11:31
what a stunning legacy he has left behind. an amazing player with an uncompromising character. RIP Victor.
chessdrummer chessdrummer 6/8/2016 05:21
I took up the French Defense (at one point) because of his handling of it in his match with Spassky.
KOTLD KOTLD 6/8/2016 01:52
Definitely a legendary Chessplayer.
jarreth22 jarreth22 6/7/2016 10:33
deep and profound sadness for the Swiss people. the great Victor has brought so much to my country that I don't find the words to describe it, except one: freedom. he came for freedom, but he tought Swiss players what freedom was about: being independant, creative, obstinate at time, and so much talented. thank you on behalf of Switzerland for the honor of choosing our citizenship!
JACERS JACERS 6/7/2016 08:18
Called Victor for a reason. NO FREE RIDE FOR ANYONE FROM THE ONE THE ONLY, THE VICTOR!.... fiery at the chessboard and away from it as well... Korchnoi stunned everyone by finding colossal love with Petra.. she by sheer force of petite will kept him alive..... like Korchnoi she was disgustingly world class over five decades ..the thing I remember best may strike readers as most strange...during a fiery feisty interview he suddenly paused without warning...interjected "I am a normal person...I go to the cinema." Coming from extreme poverty and Nazi bombs in never mentioned childhood years of horrific world war Leningrad siege ( he saw dead bodies in the streets) ..................He adored chess and rarely left the room after his tournament game was over .. intensely on the prowl...roaming the games, confronting startled young masters who never even dreamed Korchnoi knew their names much less watched their games.."You had chances..why did you not continue the game".....Please let me note that Mr. Korchnoi was a savage chain cigarette smoker, realized it was killing him and quit by sheer force of willpower. Unquestionably immortal, truly one of the great chess grandmasters of all time, period. Mercifully at peace, never forgotten. See Kasparov's wonderful My Great Predecessors coverage of his career.. a fiendishly hard worker " Never sleeping in those early days I used enough energy during a chess tournament to power a small hotel" Born to kill at the chessboard. Jude Acers /New Orleans
Nostalgiac1972 Nostalgiac1972 6/7/2016 07:38
Yet another of the remaining few with whom chess still smells of talent, flesh and bones- and not silicon- is gone. He will be sadly missed.
Nostalgiac1972 Nostalgiac1972 6/7/2016 07:29
The embodiment of dynamism... right to the last breath. R.I.P
Rational Rational 6/7/2016 07:16
I played him n a simul when he was 78 and he still had amazing energy walking round the boards and fiercely competitive. I remember him banging his knight down on e6 even in a mere simul though he was charming when I asked him to sign his autobiography. He had to be toughto survive what he had. Then I found in my game with him we played the same line as a game of his with Geller 50 years before! IMHO the best player to not have the official title. The Chessbase DVD videos of him are very good too.
Harsh Gadhiya Harsh Gadhiya 6/7/2016 07:00
reva reva 6/7/2016 06:07
Korchnoi The Great: Good Bye
your games will last for ever
genem genem 6/7/2016 04:40
Korchnoi was among the elite for three decades, as his appearances in the Candidates tournaments proves. Such a long time span near the very top is very unusual.
Karpov had to thrice overcome Viktor the Terrible to be the Match World Chess Champion. Anatoly must have wondered how long he would have to keep battling one great player over and over. Little did Anatoly then know.
FabriceWantiez FabriceWantiez 6/7/2016 04:05
The dvd's are the very best ever made by ChessBase !
NJD NJD 6/7/2016 02:32
I met him at a Canadian Open in Toronto in the 1980's. He sat at a table with a bunch of us and "kibitzed" with great insight and humour the state of "chess politics" in the USSR at the time. He was a very friendly man...
ismeto ismeto 6/7/2016 02:17
He played CHESS until his last moment
Steven E DuCharm Steven E DuCharm 6/7/2016 11:42
Herr Berger Herr Berger 6/7/2016 10:43
He was one of the chessfaces in my younger days. He will stay as a monument for the rest of my life. Viktor played a great game of life!
vonbraun vonbraun 6/7/2016 10:32
Dear Mr. Korchnoi,
thank you so very much for everything you gave us.
Offramp Offramp 6/7/2016 10:30
I shook hands with The Hand That Shook The World.
lajosarpad lajosarpad 6/7/2016 09:28
R.I.P., Viktor Korchnoi
slika slika 6/7/2016 08:50
Korchnoi was a controversial man, but IMHO the second greatest player, after Paul Keres, who never became the World Champion.

I personally enjoyed when he appeared on the top board of the so-called USSR team in early 2000s in Moscow, to play a friendly match against the so-called Yugoslavia, with the late Gligoric on the first board. And it was under original flags! All the hostilities and bitterness seemed to be forgotten in that moment, as the time stood still...

I also liked the fact when Karpov and him played together in the same team in the Russian national team championship, again in 2000s... Korchnoi never forget his homeland, after all. I am so sorry for this loss. Farewell, great master.
keram1969 keram1969 6/7/2016 08:13
Very sad neews , died Claasic chess hero , never forgot his excellent games against Tal , Kasparov , Karpov and many others chess Titans.R.I.P.
Logos Logos 6/7/2016 05:33
What a sad, sad day...

Rest in peace Viktor. I read "Chess is my Life" many times. I remain impressed by your fighting spirit, the risks you took and difficult decisions you made to stand by your values. You will live forever Master in those hearts that admire resilience.
Igor Freiberger Igor Freiberger 6/7/2016 04:57
Very sad. VK was not only one of the greatest players but also one of the more remarkable personalities in chess. He was an example of fighting spirit and will power, surpassing huge difficulties both in his personal and professional life. Chess became less interesting today.
vinniethepooh vinniethepooh 6/7/2016 04:28
Korchnoi was truly a chess hero for everyone.R.I.P and I hope you will keep continuing chess and play the great chess players up there.
auket40 auket40 6/7/2016 04:25
Korchnoi, You have inspired me to play the French as my favourite reply to 1.e4 ...Many thanks for your beautiful games! In Istanbul 2000 we made a remark of you enjoying a free day during the Olympiad and your reply was simple: "Like everybody else".
When will I see you again?!
Peter B Peter B 6/7/2016 03:45
Ryan49 - the funny thing about Korchnoi's career is that he was in his prime at 47! He wasn't nearly as strong when he was 27. Maybe it was something to do with the opportunities in the Soviet chess system, but Korchnoi reached his peak at the age most top GMs are declining. I can't think of anyone else who peaked so late (at least not without going back to the 19th century).
ribbit ribbit 6/7/2016 03:22
RIP VK - I greatly admired this man.
Ryan49 Ryan49 6/7/2016 03:09
Korchnoi was one of the strongest Grandmasters never to have won the World Championship. I think Karpov edged him out because he was 20 years younger. If Korchnoi in his prime played Karpov in his prime it would have been a different story in my opinion.
Peter B Peter B 6/7/2016 02:42
RIP a true legend of the game. I've no doubt Karpov was the better player, but somehow Korchnoi came close in 1978, and perhaps could have won the match if not for some time trouble blunders.
The_Tenant The_Tenant 6/7/2016 02:37
He's probably having the time of his life playing with Maroczy, Fischer, Botvinnik, Alekhine, Capablanca, Lasker, and Steinitz, etc. He's in heaven !
sicilian_D sicilian_D 6/7/2016 01:28
Mr. Korchnoi was an inspiration to me, in a very different way. Since he was playing competitive chess post 80 years of age, it prompted me to play with my grandpa, at grandpa's age of 87. we enjoyed 3 games!! Grandpa played quite well, before eventually blundering, but that was the point where i'd offer the draw.

First heard his name in the US, in 2007, in a discussion with IM Jack Peters.

Thank you Mr. Korchnoi, for a very unique inspiration.
APonti APonti 6/7/2016 12:08
Sad, sad news. One of the all-time best players in the world.
MCapa MCapa 6/6/2016 11:30
Viktor The Terrible, a truly hero of chess. R.I.P.
Grailmaster Grailmaster 6/6/2016 11:22
We had an interview planned with Victor for "The Science Of Chess" book project. So sad he's gone now and we'll miss him and his input greatly. Nevertheless, his life and career will cover a large part of the "The Age Factor in Chess" chapter (next to Jaques Mieses).
With his death, the Chess-World loses one of those great minds that make humankind so precious.

Dr. Axel Schumacher (@TheGrailmaster on Twitter)
jaroslavsysel jaroslavsysel 6/6/2016 10:21
the Greatest!

Korchnoi Maneuvre:
1) white has a bishop on the a2-g8 diagonal, pinning the black pawn on f7
2) the white queen is somewhere on the b1-h7 diagonal and
3) the black h-pawn has moved
4) queen on g6 etc.